DESCRIPTION OF THE MEASUREMENTS WITH DESIGN
AND PROJECT ORIENTED EDUCATION ASPECTS

 ModuleNo Developed Module title by Field Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering 1.1 P10 1.2 P10 Power Electronics 2.1 P2 2.2 P10 2.3 P9 2.4 P6 2.5 P4 2.6 P5 Electrical Machines 3.1 P12 3.2 P1 3.3 P12 3.4 P12 Electro-Mechanical and Motion Control Systems 4.1 P7 4.2 P13 4.3 P3 4.4 P1 4.5 P11 4.6 P11

Module 1.1: Single Phase and Three Phase Rectifier Circuits
(developed by the partner P10 - Politechnica University Timisoara, Romania)

Module 1.2: DC Circuit Measurements and Resonant AC Circuits
(developed by the partner P10 - Politechnica University Timisoara, Romania)

 a) DC Circuit Resistor Measurements Learning Objectives  Understanding upstream and downstream methods for resistor measurement  Identifying the sources of errors in case of using digital instruments  Resistor measurement using the Wheatstone bridge. Bridge behavior at equilibrium  Resistor measurement with the bridge out of equilibrium Assignments:  The same resistor value will be measured with the Upstream and Downstream methods  Compare the results of the two experiments  Explain why errors occur in measurements in the case of Downstream and Upstream methods  Conclude which method is indicated when measuring arge or small resistor values  Perform the resistor measurement using the Wheatstone bridge  Explain why errors occur in the case of Bridge experiment  Justify why linear interpolation is not accurate  Specify in what situation linear interpolation provides accurate enough results Experiment Description Remote experiment allows practical resistor value to be measured DC measurement of a resistor using a voltmeter and an ampermeter may be done depending on the way the two instruments are connected Resistor value determination with simple bridge comparing it with a known resistor value roughly with the same order of magnitude

Module 2.1: Power Electronics
(developed by the partner P2 - Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

 Learning Objectives  Simulate a typical design steps of a converter  Show the physical layout and construction of a converter  Demonstrate the switching effects of power semiconductor switches (e.g. switching on/off and reverse recovery)  Demonstrate the real time effects, delays in the drivers etc  Compare the simulated and measured waveforms. Show the influence of the parasitic elements  Learn the relation between the amplitude of phase voltage, line voltage and modulation index  Demonstrate the space vectors  Learn to design a filter for PWM AC waveform Assignments DC-DC:  Simulate the buck converter  Generate the pulses for the IGBT switch to achieve a requested current ripple  Measure the delays and switching times  Evaluate the efficiency of the converter  Creation of the pulses with different shape Experiment Description The main idea behind this practical is to simulate a typical design steps of a power converter. The design aspects has been identified and it is in contrast with the traditional practical where the objective is to only observe the different phenomena. Assignments DC-AC:  Measuring one phase of the three phase inverter with space vector modulation and verify the relation between harmonics, modulation index and voltage amplitude  Measuring the control signals of the three phase inverter with space vector modulation  Calculation and verification of the filtering of three phase inverter waveforms

Module 2.2: Power Factor Correction
(developed by the partner P10 - Politechnica University Timisoara, Romania)

 Learning Objectives  Merit parameters in power factor correction circuits  Converters naturally emulating a resistive behavior in the input at low frequencies. Emulated resistance determination  Input radiofrequency filter necessity and design  Output capacitor design and device stresses  Converter design to fulfill the desired operation mode Assignments:  Input voltage and current low frequency components proportionality and THD and PF determination  Emulated resistance dependency on the duty cycle  Input and output power balance, output voltage ripple estimation and output capacitor design  Input current spectrum determination and input filter design to reject high frequency components in the input current  Peak transistor current and peak transistor voltage measurement  Transient behavior at start up  Components design Experiment Description A PFC circuit built around a DCM operated flyback converter is investigated. Merit parameters are measured in steady state with emphasis on input current spectrum and output voltage ripple and spectrum Input radiofrequency filter importance and design Transistor current and voltage stresses are measured Transient behavior is modeled and measured

Module 2.3: Pulse Width Modulation
(developed by the partner P9 - Warszaw University of Technology, Poland)

 Learning Objectives  Understanding fundamentals of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) methods for two-level and three-level Voltage Source Converters (VSC)  Demonstrate Carrier Based Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (CB-SPWM)  Demonstrate CB-PWM with Third Harmonic and other Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS) Injection  Demonstrate Space Vector Modulation (SVM) with Symmetrical Placement of Zero Vectors in sampling  Demonstrate SVM with one Zero State  Understanding relations between CB-PWM and SVM methods Assignments:  Simulate the two-level VSC  Generate pulses using CB-SPWM  Generate pulses using CB-PWM with ZSS injection  Generate pulses using SVM with Symmetrical Zero Vector Placement  Generate pulses using SVM with asymmetrical zero vector placement (Two-Phase SVM)  Evaluate linear region of every modulator  Observe output currents shape for RL loads  Simulate three-level Neutral Point Clamped VSC  Generate pulses using CB-SPWM and SVM Experiment Description The main idea of this practical is to demonstrate basic methods of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques for two level and three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) bridge converters. The user may change the main parameters and observe switching state generation in different PWM methods. Also, the shape of inverter output current on RL load can be observed. Remote Experiments:  Setting parameters for two-level VSC  Setting parameters for Carrier Based SPWM  Setting parameters for symmetrical SVM  Evaluate linear region of modulator  Evaluate THD factor for different carrier frequency  Evaluate blanking time effect

Module 2.4: DC/DC Converter for Microgrid
(developed by the partner P6 - INPL, Nancy, France)

 Learning Objectives  Modelling Boost converters  Understanding how the output voltage  increases with this converter  Losses calculation in Boost converters  How to control a Boost converter  Design a PI controller Assignments:  Simulate a boost converter with and without losses  Evaluate the converter gain and efficiency  Small signal modeling of the converter for controlling the inductor current  Design a PI current controller Experiment Description Average and dynamic behaviour of a boost converter are analyzed. Its open-loop operating and modelling are studied. Then, the emphasize is put on the design of a current controller and its performance evaluation for such a system. Remote Experiments:  Open-loop operating measurements for evaluating the converter gain and losses  Closed-loop operating measurements for evaluating the current control performances

Module 2.5: Power Quality and Active Filters
(developed by the partner P4 - RUB, Bochum, Germany)

Module 2.6: V/f Constant Control Technique for Induction Motor Drive System
(developed by the partner P5 - NTUA, Athens, Greece)

 Learning Objectives  Understanding the fundamentals of the scalar V/f constant control technique  Demonstrate the operation of an inverter  Demonstrate the use and characteristics of a PI controller  Demonstrate the operation of an induction machine driven by V/f constant control technique  Understanding the real time experimental waveforms obtained from the proposed e-lab Assignments:  Evaluate the scalar V/f constant control technique with respect to other existing control techniques  Explain the differences between a dc machine and an induction machine  How through MATLAB/SIMULINK software program someone can build the controller that generates the driving pulses of a three phase inverter that drives the induction machine  Observe the real time waveforms of the motor drive system and make some remarks on the transient response of the system  Obtain simulation results for a V/f constant control technique of an induction machine and compare the results with the results of the e-lab Experiment Description The aim of this e-laboratory is to be able to understand how the scalar V/f control technique drives an induction motor. Using the MATLAB/SIMILINK the E-lab user can generate its own control circuit. Also, real time measurements such as the voltages and currents of the motor, the mechanical speed of the motor are provided by the system together with the estimated torque and magnetic flux. Remote Experiments:  Run the motor drive system for different speeds  Run the motor drive system for different gain combinations of the PI controller and observe the transient response of the system for every case  Run the motor only with a P controller or only with I controller and observe the differences on the real time results  Compare the PI controller with the PID one.

Module 3.1: Synchronous Generator
(developed by the partner P12 - Technical University, Trencin, Slovak Republic)

 Learning Objectives  Verify the principles of 3 phase AC power source generators  Show the principles of synchronous electrical machinery  Demonstrate the influence of excitation and rotor speed on quality and quantity of obtained voltage (current)  Understood the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of synchronous machinery Assignments of SG:  Control the output load  Control the excitation current  Measure the output voltage and current  Control of output voltage Experiment Description The experiment is prepared with resistive load applied at synchronous generator output. The user is able to set the speed, load resistance and excitation current as well. Controlling the load and/or the excitation the fundamental responses can be measured  change of output voltage as function of increasing load with constant excitation voltage or change of excitation current as function of increasing load with constant output voltage.

Module 3.2: DC Machines
(developed by the partner P1  Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic)

 Learning Objectives  Theory of electromechanical energy conversion  Theory of DC machine  Theory of DC machines measuring  Possibilities of measuring via PC  Basic information about measuring mistakes Assignments:  Measuring of no-loaded DC motor  Measuring of loaded DC motor  Measuring of no-loaded DC dynamo  Measuring of loaded DC dynamo Experiment Description Remote experiment makes it possible practical measuring on DC machine. There is possible measure this machine as a motor or as a dynamo.

Module 3.3: DC Motor
(developed by the partner P12 - Technical University, Trencin, Slovak Republic)

 Learning Objectives  Verify the basic principles of DC machinery  Show the principles of DC motor with shunt excitation  Demonstrate the influence of applied mechanical load on values of current supply  Understood the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of DC Machinery with shunt excitation Assignments of DC Motor:  Control the DC motor speed  Control and check the excitation current and armature current  Control the mechanical load on motors shaft  Measure the output voltage and current  Control of output voltage  Calculation and evaluation of secondary parameters as input and output power, efficiency Experiment Description User is able to set the speed of shunt excited DC motor. After reaching the obtained value the mechanical torque can be applied on motors shaft and the response of DC motor (change of supply current) can be obtained.

Module 3.4: AC Motor
(developed by the partner P12 - Technical University, Trencin, Slovak Republic)

 Learning Objectives  Verify the basic principles of induction (asynchronous) machinery  Show the principles of AM  Demonstrate the influence of applied mechanical load on motors speed  Demonstrate the response of motor to direct start procedure  Understood the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of asynchronous machinery  Understood the stable and unstable balance of torques Assignments of AM:  Control the AM motor speed  Control the supply voltage  Control the mechanical load on motors shaft  Measure the speed after change of mechanical load Experiment Description The experiment should be started by starting the operation of AM in no-load condition. User is able to control the supply voltage amplitude at f=50Hz. After start of the motor the mechanical load can be controlled by user applying the required torque on motors shaft. The user will also be able to set the load to speed-control mode and measure the torque of AM in unstable part of torque characteristics, as well as the starting torque of AM (depending on laboratory conditions).

Module 4.1: Basic Elements of Internet based Tele-robotics
(developed by the partner P7 - BMGE, Budapest, Hungary)

 Learning Objectives  Learning the communication between the computer and the servo drive  Learning the usage of PCI-1720 D/A card  Learning the usage of the PCI-1784 Counter card  Geting acquainted with controller program in C  Geting acquainted with embedded systems Assignments of DC Servo Motor Control via Internet:  Initiating the PCI-1720 D/A card  Using the real-time clock with PCI 1720 D/A card  Initiating the PCI-1784 Counter card  Open Loop measurement  Design a discrete time filter to reduce this measurement noise  Closed Loop measurement Experiment Description First the user gets acquainted with the communication between the computer and the servo drive as the important component of a mobile robot. Next, the embedded system of a mobile robot is studied. The user will write some very simple program in C language and visual basic. Examples are shown and it is believed that the user can carry out this measurement even if it will be her/his first C or visual basic program. Assignments for Programming of Embedded system:  Application of Virtual Circuits  Reflex  Scream and Run from a Shadow  Measuring Distance  Robot program

Module 4.2: Mechatronics and Hardware in the Loop Simulations
(developed by the partner P13 - University of Maribor, Slovenia)

 Learning Objectives  Modelling of the mechatronics device with highly nonlinear dynamics.  Design and application of the linear motion controllers (cascade of PI current controller, PI velocity controller and P position controller) to the motion control of the nonlinear device.  Design and application of the model based nonlinear motion controller (computed torque position controller) to motion control of the nonlinear device.  Understanding of a discrepancy between applicability of the linear and nonlinear control methods. Assignments:  Derivation of dynamic model of mechanical device, mechanism with spring  Verification of the derived dynamic model by using simulations in MATLAB/Simulink  Derivation of dynamic model of the implemented drive: direct current motor  Verification of the dynamic model of mechanism with mechanical part, drive and gears by using MATLAB/Simulink  Design of three motion controllers for the mechanism with spring  Calculation of the parameters for the motion controllers Experiment Description Remote experiment enables testing of three different motion controllers when controlling mechatronics device with nonlinear dynamics. The user can partially change the structure of controllers and tune controllers parameters in order to achieve the best performance of the controlled device. Remote Experiments:  Setting the parameters of cascade position, velocity and current controller.  Setting the parameters of PD controller with position and velocity loop.  Setting the parameters and structure of computed torque motion controller.

Module 4.3: High Dynamic Drives  Motion Control
(developed by the partner P3  Vienna University of Technology, Austria)

 Learning Objectives  Understand how high dynamic operation of AC drives works  Detect parasitic influence of inverter dead time  Identify all necessary parameters of the drive/mechanical system  Practically apply field oriented control  Realize cascaded control structure  Implement 2-axes motion control Assignments: Students should perform tests and experiments in the topics: field oriented control, inverter fed operation and cascaded control.  Perform measurements to identify parameters of the machines  Calibrate the resolver to determine the rotor position with mounted magnets  Calculate and tune current control loop  Verify control performance through experiments  Identify mechanical system parameters  Realize and verify speed control  Calculate and tune position control loop  Establish 2-axes position control Experiment Description The system operated is a two axes positioning system fed by permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM). As shown in the figure it consists of two linear axes each equipped with a lead screw and a PMSM drive. The second axis is mounted on top of the first thus allowing separate movement of the two carriages. The movement of the system is displayed by a webcam.

Module 4.4: Automotive Electrical Drive
(developed by the partner P1  Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic)

 Learning Objectives  Accumulators and their using in cars  Claw pole alternator  Starter Assignments Lead Acid Accumulator:  Measuring of Lead Acid Accumulator  Calculation of internal resistance Experiment Description This module contains two experiments. The main description of both experiments is practically measuring of basic characteristic of Lead Acid Accumulator and Claw Pole alternator. Assignments Claw  Pole Alternator:  Measuring the dependence of output voltage on excitation current at constant speed  Measuring the dependence of voltage on speed at constant excitation voltage  Measuring dependence of the current on the speed at the constant voltage, constant excitation current and the constant temperature of the machine

Module 4.5: System of Water Tanks Controlled by Small Logic Controller
(developed by the partner P11 - Technical University, Kosice, Slovak Republic)

 Learning Objectives Following objectives are met:  Getting experiences with Small (programmable) Logic Controller (SLC) programming for control of a real technological process  Design of the SLC system for the prescribed tasks  Control program debugging in the working environment of the SLC SIMATIC 300  Verification of the correctness of designed control program Goal of the Control: The main goal the experiment consists in training students in development and debugging an effective control programme for the SLC that is interconnected with the laboratory model of technological process and provides its control. The task is to control the liquid level in the reference tank according to the required value. Experiment Description The laboratory model consists of two water tanks interconnected by pipelines. Two pumps are controlled by SLC and in the tanks there are level sensors. The control programme has to ensure to settle down level of the liquid in the tank to the reference value (including a hysteresis range). Assignments: To develop a control program  ensuring the required height of the liquid level in the reference tank according to the given required (reference) value and  in case of a disturbance (that is detected by marginal sensors - HIGH and LOW limits) it will switch off the corresponding pump.

Module 4.6: System of Conveyors Controlled by SLC
(developed by the partner P11 - Technical University, Kosice, Slovak Republic)

 Learning Objectives Following objectives are met:  Getting experiences with Small Logic Controller (SLC) programming  Design of the PLC system for the prescribed technological process control  Control program debugging in the working environment of the SLC SIMATIC 300  Verification of the correctness of designed control program Goal of the Control: The main goal the experiment is to develop and debug a control programme for the SLC that is interconnected with the laboratory model of the technological process. The task is to control a proper run of the technological process according to the state of the actuating units:  the conveyer is running stopping and  the dumping hopper is opened/closed. Experiment Description The laboratory model consists of three conveyers that transport a bulk material into two containers: the worm conveyer conveys the bulk material from the container No 1 into the container No 2. The belt conveyers convey the material in an opposite direction - i.e. from the container No 2 into the container No 1. Each container contains a dumping hopper that is opened and closed by an electromagnetic coil. Opening the dumping hopper causes pouring the material onto the conveyer. Assignments: To develop the control program enabling: Task 1: 1. Running the worm conveyer, if the dumping hopper No 1 is on. 2. Running both belt conveyers, if the dumping hopper No 2 is on. 3. Running of all three conveyers, if both dumping hoppers are on. Task 2: 1. Moving the material from the first container into the second one, till the material level is > 50 %. 2. Moving the material into the first container till the material level in the second one is > 75 %. 3. The process stops if the level of the material in the second container 2 is < 50 %.